The Divine Beasts are mechanical constructs from The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild. There are four Divine Beasts; Vah Ruta, Vah Medoh, Vah Rudania and Vah Naboris, each of which were corrupted by Calamity Ganon during the Great Calamity causing disasters all over Hyrule. Link must free them from corruption by entering their innards and returning them to their owners, the four Champions. The Beasts' innards function as dungeons and Link has to battle their bosses. Once set free, the four Divine Beasts will help Link confront and defeat Calamity Ganon.
in the Tabantha Frontier
in the Gerudo Desert
on Death Mountain
in the East Reservoir Lake
The Divine Beasts' innards are more expansive than the shrines, and different than traditional dungeons of the The Legend of Zelda series. They are shorter but have wide chambers. All the Divine Beasts have a set of terminals, which Link has to activate. Once done, he is then able to turn on the Main Control Unit leading to the boss fight of each Divine Beast, respectively Windblight Ganon in Vah Medoh, Thunderblight Ganon in Vah Naboris, Waterblight Ganon in Vah Ruta and Fireblight Ganon in Vah Rudania.
Each Divine Beast has its own unique controllable function, directly correlated to its form and design. The functions can be controlled while inside each beast's innards by downloading the map on the Sheikah Slate. After freeing each beast, Link may not enter and therefore may not adjust the beasts after leaving them. Vah Medoh, a mechanical eagle, has the ability to have its roll adjusted which puts the dungeon at a tilt. Vah Naboris, a mechanical camel, has individually controllable rings in its stomach that each contain a line. When properly adjusted, the lines are charged with a high electric current. Vah Rudania, a mechanical salamander, can completely turn its body at a 90° angle. Vah Ruta, a mechanical elephant, can move its trunk to spray water in different areas. All four beasts make unique calls, with Ruta's and Medoh's bearing the signature sounds of their respective animals.
Unnamed Divine Beast
During the quest "EX Champions' Ballad" unlock upon installing "The Champions' Ballad" DLC pack, a fifth Divine Beast at the Shrine of Resurrection at the Great Plateau, taking the name "Final Trial". Not much is known about this and who it is intended for, although it holds the location of the Master Cycle Zero, a Rune that may be used on the Sheikah Slate once distilled, and it is the final resting place of Sheikah Monk Maz Koshia, set up very much like a Shrine intended for the Hylian Champion with the Master Cycle Zero taking the form of a horse.
According to an ancient legend of the battle with Calamity Ganon ten thousand years before Breath of the Wild, there was a period of time when the Sheikah developed a technologically advanced civilization in Hyrule. Knowing the ancient evil Ganon and old enemy of the Royal Family of Hyrule would return, the Sheikah developed a plan to confront him with their best technology. This lead to the creation of the four powerful machines that became known collectively as the Divine Beasts and an army of autonomous weapons called Guardians all designed to protect and aid the current Goddess Blood Princess of Hyrule and Hero Chosen by the Master Sword in confronting and sealing Ganon. Each Divine Beasts were given to one of four races, Vah Ruta to the Zora, Vah Naboris to the Gerudo, Vah Rudania to the Gorons, and Vah Medoh to the Rito. Each race selected a Champion to pilot their Divine Beast. Three were named in honor of three of the legendary Seven Sages, with Vah Ruta being named in honor of Princess Ruto, Vah Rudania in honor of Darunia, and Vah Naboris in honor of Nabooru, all three of whom opposed Ganondorf the original form of Ganon. With their plan in motion, a great battle ensued with the Guardians and Divine Beasts supporting the Hero who defeated Ganon allowing the Princess to seal him once more. The Sheikah technology was hailed for a time as having power akin to the gods. However eventually people began to fear such technology being misused. This caused the Sheikah to become marginalized in Hylian society for a time leading to schism among the Sheikah over their treatment. Most Sheikah chose to heed the people's fears and buried their technology living simple lives. However others angered by said mistreatment despite the Sheikah doing so for Hyrule's benefit broke of to form the Yiga Clan who swore loyalty to Ganon. As a result, much knowledge of the Ancient technology was lost and faded into legend.
A century before Breath of the Wild, it was foretold by the fortune teller that the return of Calamity Ganon was inevitable. This sparked a search for the fabled ancient Sheikah relics, including the Guardians and the four Divine Beasts. Many believed them to be simply a legend but their discovery made this legend a reality for them. Realizing this, King Rhoam and Princess Zelda formed a new group of Champions inspired by the unnamed Champions of legend. Commanded by Princess Zelda, four elite warriors were selected from across the kingdom and were tasked with the duty of piloting the Divine Beasts to assist Link, Princess Zelda's appointed Knight and the Hylian Champion selected by the Master Sword. Due to her interest in ancient technology and scholarly research, Princess Zelda worked a team of Sheikah ancient technology researchers which included Purah and Robbie. Vah Ruta was unearthed near Zora's Domain and a young Zora Princess Mipha was drawn to it by its cute appearance speaking of it as if were a dear old friend. Mipha was the childhood friend of Hylian Champion Link whom she met when he was just four years old. Like Ruto before her, Mipha became smitten with Link and eventually feel in love with him dreaming of marrying him. As a result she agreed to Princess Zelda's request to pilot Vah Ruta. With her father, King Dorephan's support she became the Zora Champion and learned to pilot Vah Ruta easily. Vah Rudania was unearthed near Death Mountain which the Goron assisted in they Daruk like most of his people didn't care about rocks he couldn't eat. Daruk became sworn brothers with Link not long after they first met and admired Link's Goron-like strength. He was happy to became a Champion and tried to foster a sense of comradeship among his fellow Champions, though had trouble learning to control Vah Rudania but eventually got the hang of it after some training and swore to Link he would defend his homeland to the death. Vah Naboris was unearthed in Gerudo Desert. Gerudo Chieftain Urbosa was a close friend to Zelda's mother the late Queen of Hyrule and befriended Zelda after her mother's death. Urbosa hated Ganon due to his Gerudo origins and wished to support Zelda agreed to pilot Vah Naboris despite her own people's objections. Revali was a hardworking, talented, but arrogant Rito warrior who accepted Princess Zelda's request to pilot Vah Medoh though became jealous of the Hylian Champion upon learning he would only play a support role. However Revali recognized Princess Zelda and shared her jealousy and resentment of the talented Link whom had been a prodigal swordsman even at four years old. Zelda researched the Divine Beasts and even made adjustments to them. She even supplied the Zora with information on Vah Ruta's water pumps. The Champions and their allies believed the Guardians and Divine Beasts would allow them to defeat Ganon, but unfortunately Princess Zelda struggled to awaken her sacred sealing powers despite years of training and prayer to Hylia.
The Champions followed Princess Zelda to the foot of Mount Lanayru on her seventeenth birthday, but Zelda's power failed to awaken at the Spring of Wisdom. Suddenly Calamity Ganon reappeared and attacked Hyrule Castle as Daruk rallied his fellow pilots to make their way to their Divine Beasts promising Link he'd have their support while Princess Zelda bravely chose to join the fight without her sealing powers. Unfortunately Calamity Ganon had learned from his previous defeat and sought to turn Hyrule's ancient technology against it, devastated the Kingdom of Hyrule by taking control of the Guardians and the Divine Beasts, killing four of the Champions and King Rhoam in the process. Link was injured protecting Zelda from Guardians and placed in medical stasis within an ancient Sheikah medical facility Zelda's research team had previously uncovered. When Link was incapacitate, Zelda's sealing power awoke when she selfless shielded him with her body shutting down the remaining Guardians attacking them. Guided by the voice of the spirit of the Master Sword, Zelda entrusted the blade to the Great Deku Tree before sealing herself and Ganon in Hyrule Castle. This event became known to Hyrule's people as the Great Calamity. After Ganon was sealed by Zelda, their Sheikah allies continued their research while the Zora, Gorons, Gerudo, and Rito all mourned their respective champion's deaths as they and the people of Hyrule rebuilt without the Hyrulean monarchy as Zelda was assumed by most to have perished and Link was thought to have died defending Fort Hateno with only the loyal Sheikah and Yiga Clan aware of his survival. Fortunately the Divine Beasts became dormant after Ganon was sealed, though the corrupted Guardians remained active though time eventually took its toll on some of them. During the Age of Burning Fields, Link slept as Zelda held Ganon under seal though he slowly feed off her divine power to regain his power over the next one hundred years.
A hundred years later, however, they reactivated and began causing trouble for the races they were entrusted to. Vah Ruta threatened to flood Zora's Domain with torrential rain. Vah Rudania rained down magma bombs forcing the Gorons to abandon their mines on Death Mountain while Big Boss of the Gorons Bludo and Daruk's descendant Yunobo managed to trap it on Death Mountain and protected Goron City the best they could. Vah Naboris wandered through Gerudo Desert kicking up sandstorms and attacking any that drew close with lightning causing the young Gerudo Chieftain Makeela Riju to worry if she could lead her people through such a crisis while the Yiga Clan stole Urbosa's Thunder Helm the only armor capable of withstanding Naboris' lightning. Vah Medoh appeared in the skies above Rito Village attacking any Rito who flew too high forcing them to fly low and scaring away most tourists and travelers. Hearing Zelda's psychic plea to awaken Link awoke with amnesia but was guided by Zelda's deceased father to seek out Impa who revealed Princess Zelda left a message for him to free the Divine Beasts as Hyrule Castle was too dangerous, their power would be needed, and freeing them would stop the beasts' rampage. They were ultimately disabled and purged of their corruption by Link, with their ultimately settling at an area allowing for a good vantage point to fire upon Calamity Ganon once he resurfaces at Hyrule Castle. It is heavily implied that Calamity Ganon's control over them weakened slightly over the past century due to their sending out a coded signal requesting help, which was partially how Link was able to disable them with some help. Presumably Zelda's hundred year sealing of Calamity Ganon also played a role in them going dormant while Link slept.
After freeing Vah Naboris, the Gerudo Champion Urbosa explicitly states that Naboris was named after Nabooru. Additionally it is also stated in a Zora Stone Monument authored by Zora King Dorephan that Vah Ruta is named after Princess Ruto who's history as Sage of Water and Lord Jabu-Jabu's attendant is also referenced. Vah Medoh stands out, as it is the only Divine Beast to not be named after a sage from Ocarina of Time, but a sage from The Wind Waker as the Rito does not exist until the latter game.